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fake_authentication [2006/11/19 16:12]
darkaudax
fake_authentication [2010/11/21 13:18] (current)
sleek typos
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 ====== Fake authentication ====== ====== Fake authentication ======
  
-This attack is only useful when you need an associated MAC address in attacks 2, 3, 4 (-h option) and there is currently no associated client. However it is genereally better to use the MAC address of a real client (like here, 00:​09:​5B:​EB:​C5:​2B) in attacks 2, 3 and 4. The fake auth attack does NOT generate ARP requests. 
  
-Also, subsequent attacks will likely perform better if you update the MAC address of the card, so that it properly sends ACKs:+===== Description =====
  
-  ifconfig ath0 down +The fake authentication attack allows you to perform the two types of WEP authentication (Open System and Shared Key) plus associate with the access point (AP).  This is only useful when you need an associated MAC address in various [[aireplay-ng]] attacks and there is currently no associated client. ​ It should be noted that the fake authentication attack does NOT generate any ARP packets. ​ Fake authentication cannot be used to authenticate/​associate with WPA/WPA2 Access Points.
-  ifconfig ath0 hw ether 00:​11:​22:​33:​44:​55 +
-  ifconfig ath0 up+
  
 +===== Usage =====
  
-  ​aireplay-ng -1 0 -e 'the ssid' ​-a 00:13:10:30:24:9C -h 00:11:22:33:44:55 ath0 +   aireplay-ng -1 0 -e teddy -a 00:14:6C:7E:40:80 -h 00:09:5B:EC:EE:F2 -y sharedkeyxor ​ath0
-  12:​14:​06 ​ Sending Authentication Request +
-  12:​14:​06 ​ Authentication successful +
-  12:​14:​06 ​ Sending Association Request +
-  12:​14:​07 ​ Association successful :-) +
-\\ +
-=======================================+
  
 +Where:
 +  *-1 means fake authentication
 +  *0 reassociation timing in seconds
 +  *-e teddy is the wireless network name
 +  *-a 00:​14:​6C:​7E:​40:​80 is the access point MAC address
 +  *-h 00:​09:​5B:​EC:​EE:​F2 is our card MAC address
 +  *-y sharedkeyxor is the name of file containing the PRGA xor bits.  This is only used for shared key authentication. ​ Open system authentication,​ which is typical, does not require this.
 +  *ath0 is the wireless interface name
 +
 +
 +Or another variation for picky access points:
 +
 +  aireplay-ng -1 6000 -o 1 -q 10 -e teddy -a 00:​14:​6C:​7E:​40:​80 -h 00:​09:​5B:​EC:​EE:​F2 ath0
 +
 +Where:
 +  * 6000 - Reauthenticate very 6000 seconds. ​ The long period also causes keep alive packets to be sent.
 +  * -o 1 - Send only one set of packets at a time.  Default is multiple and this confuses some APs.
 +  * -q 10 - Send keep alive packets every 10 seconds.
 +
 +
 +===== Usage Examples =====
 +
 +The lack of association with the access point is the single biggest reason why injection fails.  ​
 +
 +To associate with an access point, use fake authentication:​
 +
 +aireplay-ng -1 0 -e teddy -a 00:​14:​6C:​7E:​40:​80 -h 00:​09:​5B:​EC:​EE:​F2 ath0
 +
 +Where:
 +  *-1 means fake authentication
 +  *0 reassociation timing in seconds
 +  *-e teddy is the wireless network name
 +  *-a 00:​14:​6C:​7E:​40:​80 is the access point MAC address
 +  *-h 00:​09:​5B:​EC:​EE:​F2 is our card MAC address
 +  *ath0 is the wireless interface name
 +
 +Success looks like:
 +  18:​18:​20 ​ Sending Authentication Request
 +  18:​18:​20 ​ Authentication successful
 +  18:​18:​20 ​ Sending Association Request
 +  18:​18:​20 ​ Association successful :-)
 +
 +Or another variation for picky access points:
 +
 +  aireplay-ng -1 6000 -o 1 -q 10 -e teddy -a 00:​14:​6C:​7E:​40:​80 -h 00:​09:​5B:​EC:​EE:​F2 ath0
 +
 +Where:
 +  * 6000 - Reauthenticate very 6000 seconds. ​ The long period also causes keep alive packets to be sent.
 +  * -o 1 - Send only one set of packets at a time.  Default is multiple and this confuses some APs.
 +  * -q 10 - Send keep alive packets every 10 seconds.
 +
 +Success looks like:
 +  18:​22:​32 ​ Sending Authentication Request
 +  18:​22:​32 ​ Authentication successful
 +  18:​22:​32 ​ Sending Association Request
 +  18:​22:​32 ​ Association successful :-)
 +  18:​22:​42 ​ Sending keep-alive packet
 +  18:​22:​52 ​ Sending keep-alive packet
 +  # and so on.
 +
 +Here is an example of a shared key authentication. ​ It does assume you have a PRGA xor file.  See the [[shared_key|How to do shared key fake authentication]] tutorial for more details.
 +
 +   ​aireplay-ng -1 0  -e teddy -y sharedkey-04-00-14-6C-7E-40-80.xor -a 00:​14:​6C:​7E:​40:​80 -h 00:​09:​5B:​EC:​EE:​F2 ath0
 +
 +Where:
 +  * -1 means fake authentication
 +  * 0 means only authenticate once
 +  * -e teddy is the SSID of the network
 +  * -y sharedkey-04-00-14-6C-7E-40-80.xor is the name of file containing the PRGA xor bits
 +  * -a 00:​14:​6C:​7E:​40:​80 is the access point MAC address
 +  * -h 00:​09:​5B:​EC:​EE:​F2 ​
 +   * ath0 is the interface name
 +
 +Here is an example of a successful shared key authentication:​
 +
 +   ​11:​44:​55 ​ Sending Authentication Request
 +   ​11:​44:​55 ​ AP rejects open-system authentication
 +   ​Part1:​ Authentication
 +   Code 0 - Authentication SUCCESSFUL :)
 +   ​Part2:​ Association
 +   Code 0 - Association SUCCESSFUL :)
 +
 +If you receive the messages above, you are good to go forward with the standard injection techniques.
 +
 +===== Usage Tips =====
 +==== Setting MAC address ====
 +
 +It is good practice to set your card's MAC address to the one you specify via the "​-h"​ parameter if they are different. Having them the same, ensures that wireless "​ACK"​s are sent by your card. This means subsequent attacks work smoothly. ​
 +
 +Detailed instructions on changing the card MAC address can be found in the FAQ: [[faq#​how_do_i_change_my_card_s_mac_address|How do I change my card's MAC address ?]].
 +
 +Troubleshooting Tip: A normal MAC address looks like this: 00:​09:​5B:​EC:​EE:​F2. ​ It is composed of six octets. ​ The first half (00:09:5B) of each MAC address is known as the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI). ​ Simply put, it is the card manufacturer. The second half (EC:EE:F2) is known as the extension identifier and is unique to each network card within the specific OUI. Many access points will ignore MAC addresses with invalid OUIs. So make sure you use a valid OUI code code when you make up MAC addresses. Otherwise, your packets may be ignored by the Access Point. ​ The current list of OUIs may be found [[http://​standards.ieee.org/​regauth/​oui/​oui.txt|here]].
 +
 +==== Injecting in Managed Mode ====
 With patched madwifi-old CVS 2005-08-14, it's possible to inject packets while in Managed mode (the WEP key itself doesn'​t matter, as long as the AP accepts Open-System authentication). So, instead of running attack 1, you may just associate and inject / monitor through the athXraw interface: With patched madwifi-old CVS 2005-08-14, it's possible to inject packets while in Managed mode (the WEP key itself doesn'​t matter, as long as the AP accepts Open-System authentication). So, instead of running attack 1, you may just associate and inject / monitor through the athXraw interface:
  
Line 35: Line 121:
   aireplay-ng -4 -h 00:​10:​20:​30:​40:​50 -f 1 ath0   aireplay-ng -4 -h 00:​10:​20:​30:​40:​50 -f 1 ath0
  
-============================== + 
-\\ +==== Examples of successful authentications ​==== 
-Some access points require to reassociate every 30 seconds, otherwise ​our fake client is considered disconnected. In this case, setup the periodic re-association delay:+ 
 +When troubleshooting failed fake authentications,​ it can be helpful to do a packet capture and compare it to successful ones.  As well, simply reviewing this packet captures with WireShark can be very educational. 
 + 
 +Here are packet captures of the two types of authentication - open and shared key: 
 + 
 +  * [[http://​download.aircrack-ng.org/​wiki-files/​other/​wep.open.system.authentication.cap|wep.open.system.authentication.cap]] 
 +  * [[http://​download.aircrack-ng.org/​wiki-files/​other/​wep.shared.key.authentication.cap|wep.shared.key.authentication.cap]] 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Usage Troubleshooting ​===== 
 + 
 +==== Identifying failed authentications ==== 
 +Here is an example of what a failed authentication looks like: 
 +  8:​28:​02 ​ Sending Authentication Request 
 +  18:​28:​02 ​ Authentication successful 
 +  18:​28:​02 ​ Sending Association Request 
 +  18:​28:​02 ​ Association successful :-) 
 +  18:​28:​02 ​ Got a deauthentication packet! 
 +  18:​28:​05 ​ Sending Authentication Request 
 +  18:​28:​05 ​ Authentication successful 
 +  18:​28:​05 ​ Sending Association Request 
 +  18:​28:​10 ​ Sending Authentication Request 
 +  18:​28:​10 ​ Authentication successful 
 +  18:​28:​10 ​ Sending Association Request 
 + 
 +Notice the "Got a deauthentication packet"​ and the continuous retries above. ​ Do not proceed with other attacks until you have the fake authentication running correctly. 
 + 
 +Another way to identify a failed fake authentication is to run tcpdump and look at the packets. ​ Start another session while you are injecting and... 
 + 
 +Run: "​tcpdump -n -e -s0 -vvv -i ath0"​ 
 + 
 +Here is a typical tcpdump error message you are looking for: 
 + 
 +  11:​04:​34.360700 314us BSSID:​00:​14:​6c:​7e:​40:​80 DA:​00:​0f:​b5:​46:​11:​19 SA:​00:​14:​6c:​7e:​40:​80 DeAuthentication:​ Class 3 frame received from nonassociated station 
 + 
 +Notice that the access point (00:​14:​6c:​7e:​40:​80) is telling the source (00:​0f:​b5:​46:​11:​19) you are not associated. ​ Meaning, the AP will not process or accept the injected packets. 
 + 
 +If you want to select only the DeAuth packets with tcpdump then you can use: "​tcpdump -n -e -s0 -vvv -i ath0 | grep DeAuth"​. ​ You may need to tweak the phrase "​DeAuth"​ to pick out the exact packets you want. 
 + 
 +See the next sections for possible solutions. 
 + 
 +==== Reassociating on periodic basis ==== 
 + 
 +Sometimes you periodically get disassociation events.  ​Some access points require to reassociate every 30 seconds, otherwise ​the  ​fake client is considered disconnected. In this case, setup the periodic re-association delay:
  
   aireplay-ng -1 30 -e 'the ssid' -a 00:​13:​10:​30:​24:​9C -h 00:​11:​22:​33:​44:​55 ath0   aireplay-ng -1 30 -e 'the ssid' -a 00:​13:​10:​30:​24:​9C -h 00:​11:​22:​33:​44:​55 ath0
  
-If this attacks seems to fail (aireplay-ng keeps sending authentication requests)MAC address filtering may be in place. Also make sure that:+==== Error Message "AP rejects open-system authentication"​ ==== 
 + 
 +You receive the following error message when trying ​to do [[fake_authentication|fake authentication]] with [[aireplay-ng]]:​ 
 + 
 +   ​15:​46:​53 ​ Sending Authentication Request 
 +   ​15:​46:​53 ​ AP rejects open-system authentication 
 +   ​Please specify a PRGA-file (-y). 
 + 
 +See the [[shared_key|How to do shared key fake authentication]] tutorial. 
 + 
 + 
 +==== MAC access controls enabled on the AP ==== 
 + 
 +If fake authentication is never successful ​(aireplay-ng keeps sending authentication requests) ​then MAC address filtering may be in place. ​ This is where the access point will only accept connections from specific MAC addresses. ​ In this case you will need to obtain a valid MAC address by observation using [[airodump-ng]]. ​ Do not do a fake authentication for a specific MAC address if the client is active on the AP.  See the MAC access control troubleshooting tip [[i_am_injecting_but_the_ivs_don_t_increase#​troubleshooting_tips|here]] 
 + 
 + 
 +==== Waiting for beacon frame ==== 
 +When you enter the command, the system freezes or a line is printed with "​Waiting for beacon frame" and then no further activity occurs. 
 + 
 +There are many possible root causes of this problem: 
 + 
 +  * The wireless card is set to a channel which is different then the AP.  Solution: Use iwconfig and confirm the card is set to the same channel as the AP. 
 +  * The card is scanning channels. ​ Solution: Start airodump-ng with the "​-c"​ or "​--channel"​ parameter and set it to the same channel as the AP. 
 +  * The ESSID is wrong. ​ Solution: Enter the correct value. ​ If if contains spaces or special characters then enclose it in quotes. ​ For the complete details, see this [[faq#​how_to_use_spaces_double_quote_and_single_quote_in_ap_names|FAQ entry]]. 
 +  * The BSSID is wrong. ​ Solution: Enter the correct value. 
 +  * You are too far away from the AP and are not receiving any beacons. ​ Solution: ​ You can use tcpdump and/or airodump-ng to confirm you are in fact receiving beacons for the AP.  If not, move closer. 
 +  * You are not receiving beacons for the AP:  Solution: ​ Use "​tcpdump -n -vvv -e -s0 -i <​interface name>"​ to confirm you are receiving beacons. ​ Assuming you have dealt with with potential problems above, it could be the drivers or you have not put the card into monitor mode. 
 + 
 +For all of the above, running airodump-ng and the related text file should provide all the information you require identify and correct the problem. 
 + 
 + 
 +==== Airodump-ng does not show the ESSID ==== 
 + 
 +Airodump-ng does not show the ESSID! ​ How do I do fake authentication since this is a required parameter?​ 
 + 
 +Answer: ​ You need to patient. ​ When a client associates with the AP, then airodump-ng will obtain and display the ESSID. ​ If you are impatient then [[deauthentication|deauthenticate a client]] to get the  ESSID immediately. 
 + 
 + 
 +==== Error Message "​Denied (Code 1) is WPA in use?" ==== 
 + 
 +You get something similar to this: 
 + 
 +   ​Sending Authentication Request 
 +   ​Authentication successful 
 +   ​Sending Association Request 
 +   ​Association successful 
 +   ​Denied (Code 1) is WPA in use? 
 + 
 +You cannot use fake authentication with a WPA/WPA Access Point. ​ It may only be used with WEP Access Points. 
 + 
 + 
 +==== Error Message "​Denied (code 10), open (no WEP)?" ==== 
 + 
 +You cannot use fake authentication with an Open AP.  Open meaning there is no WEP encryption enabled. ​ There is no WEP key to crack! 
 + 
 + 
 +==== Error Message "​Denied (code 12), wrong ESSID or WPA?" ==== 
 + 
 +First, ensure the AP you are trying to connect to is WEP.  You cannot do fake authentication to a WPA/WPA2 network. 
 + 
 +The most likely reason to get this error message is when the ESSID specified with "​-e"​ does not EXACTLY match the real ESSID. ​ Capitalization,​ spaces, special characters and so on must match exactly. ​ See this FAQ entry [[faq#​how_to_use_spaces_double_quote_and_single_quote_etc._in_ap_names|FAQ entry]] for instructions on how to handle unusual ESSIDs.  
 + 
 + 
 +==== Error message "code (XX)" ==== 
 +You receive an error messages referencing a code number. ​ This [[http://​download.aircrack-ng.org/​wiki-files/​other/​managementframes.pdf|Management Frames description]] is an excellent description of the various error codes you may receive. ​ Just look for the number relating to the authentication or association phase when you received the error. 
 + 
 + 
 +==== Other problems and solutions ==== 
 + 
 +Also make sure that: 
 + 
 +  * You are physically close enough to the access point. ​ You can confirm that you can communicate with the specific AP by following [[injection_test#​hidden_or_specific_ssid|these instructions]]. 
 +  * Make sure you are using a real MAC address (see discussion above) 
 +  * The wireless card driver is properly patched and installed. ​ Use the [[injection_test|injection test]] to confirm your card can inject. 
 +  * The card is configured on the same channel as the AP.  Use "​iwconfig"​ to confirm. 
 +  * The BSSID and ESSID (-a / -e options) are correct. 
 +  * If Prism2, make sure the firmware was updated. ​
  
 +See also: [[aireplay-ng#​usage_troubleshooting|General aireplay-ng troubleshooting]]
  
-    * You are close enough to the access point. 
-    * The driver is properly patched and installed. 
-    * The card is configured on the same channel as the AP. 
-    * The BSSID and ESSID (-a / -e options) are correct. 
-    * If Prism2, make sure the firmware was updated. ​ 
fake_authentication.1163949138.txt.gz · Last modified: 2007/02/27 22:07 (external edit)